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Pin Diagram Of 8086 Microprocessor: The Hardware Model

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor intended to be used as the CPU in a microcomputer. The 8086 Microprocessor - Internal Architecture sh...

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The 8086 Microprocessor- Internal Architecture

The Intel 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor intended to be used as the CPU in a microcomputer. The term “16-bit” means that its arithmetic logic unit, internal registers, and most of its instructions are designed to work 16-bit binary words. It has 16-bit data bus and 20-bit address bus.
Words will be stored in two consecutive memory locations. If the first byte of a word is at an even address, the 8086 can read the entire word in one operation. If the first byte of the word is at an odd address, the 8086 will read the first byte in one operation, and the second byte in another operation.
Following figure shows the internal block diagram of 8086 microprocessor. 

8086 Internal Block Diagram
The 8086 CPU is divided into two independent functional parts, the bus interface unit or BIU, and the execution unit or EU. 

The Bus Interface Unit

The BIU handles all data and addresses on the buses for the execution unit such as it sends out addresses, fetches instructions from memory, reads data from ports and memory as well as writes data to ports and memory. In BIU there are so many functional groups or parts these are as follows.

Instruction Queue

To increase the execution speed, BIU fetches as many as six instruction bytes ahead to time from memory. The pre fetched instruction bytes are held for the EU in a first in first out group of registers called a instruction queue. When the EU is ready for its next instruction, it simply reads the instruction from this instruction queue. This is much faster than sending out an address to the system memory and to send back the next instruction byte. Fetching the next instruction while the current instruction executes is called pipelining.

Segment Registers

The BIU contains four 16-bit segment registers. They are: the extra segment (ES) register, the code segment (CS) registers, the data segment (DS) registers, and the stack segment (SS) registers. These segment registers are used to hold the upper 16 bits of the starting address for each of the segments. The part of a segment starting address stored in a segment register is often called the segment base.
1. Code Segment (CS): The CS register is used for addressing a memory location in the Code Segment of the memory, where the executable program is stored.
2. Data Segment (DS): The DS contains most data used by program. Data are accessed in the
Data Segment by an offset address or the content of other register that holds the offset address.
3. Stack Segment (SS): SS defined a section of memory to store addresses and data while a subprogram executes.
4. Extra Segment (ES): ES is additional data segment that is used by some of the string to hold the extra destination data.
8086 Memory Segment

 Instruction Pointer (IP)

In the BIU, the next register, below the segment register is instruction pointer. The instruction pointer (IP) holds the 16-bit address of the next code byte within this code segment.

The Execution Unit

The execution unit (EU) tells the BIU where to fetch instructions or data from, decodes instructions, and executes instructions.
The functional parts of the execution unit are control circuitry or system, instruction decoder, and Arithmetic logic unit (ALU).
Control circuitry to perform various internal operations. A decoder in the EU translates instructions fetched from memory to generate different internal or external control signals that required performing the operation. The EU has a 16-bit ALU, which can perform arithmetic operations such as add, subtract etc. and logical operations such as AND, OR, XOR, increment, decrement etc. 

Flag Register

A 16-bit flag register is a flip-flop which indicates some condition produced by the execution of an instruction or controls certain operations of the EU. They are modified automatically by CPU after mathematical operations. It has 9 flags and they are divided into two categories:
1. Conditional Flags
2. Control Flags

Conditional Flags

Conditional flags represent result of last arithmetic or logical instructions.
· Carry Flag (CF): This flag will be set to one if the arithmetic operation produces the carry in MSB position. It is also used in multiple-precision arithmetic.
· Auxiliary Flag (AF): If an operation performed in ALU generates a carry/barrow from lower nibble (i.e. D0 – D3) to upper nibble (i.e. D4 – D7), the AF flag is set i.e. carry given by D3 bit to D4 is AF flag. This is not a general-purpose flag; it is used internally by the processor to perform Binary to BCD conversion.
· Parity Flag (PF): This flag is used to indicate the parity of result. If lower order 8-bits of the result contains even number of 1’s, the Parity Flag is set to one and for odd number of 1’s, the Parity Flag is reset i.e. zero.
· Zero Flag (ZF): It is set to one; if the result of arithmetic or logical operation is zero else it is reset.
· Sign Flag (SF): In sign magnitude format the sign of number is indicated by MSB bit. If the result of operation is negative, sign flag is set to one.
· Overflow Flag (OF): It occurs when signed numbers are added or subtracted. An OF indicates that the result has exceeded the capacity of machine.
Control Flags
Control flags are intentionally set or reset to control certain operations of the processor with specific instructions put in the program from the user. Control
flags are as follows:
1. Trap Flag (TP): It is used for single step control. It allows user to execute one instruction of a program at a time for debugging. When trap flag is set, program can be run in single step mode.
2. Interrupt Flag (IF): It is an interrupt enable/disable flag, i.e. used to allow/prohibit the interruption of a program. If it is set, the maskable interrupt is enabled and if it is reset, the interrupt is disabled.
3. Direction Flag (DF): It is used in string operation. If it is set, string bytes are accessed from higher memory address to lower memory address. When it is reset, the string bytes are accessed from lower memory address to higher memory address.
8086 Flag Register Format

General Purpose Registers

The EU has eight general purpose registers labeled AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH, and DL. These registers can be used individually for temporary storage of 8-bit data. The AL register is also called the accumulator. Certain pairs of these general purpose registers can be used together to store 16-bit data. The valid register pairs are AH and AL, BH and BL, CH and CL and DH and DL. These register pairs is referred to the AX, BX, CX, and DX resp.

1. AX Register: For 16-bit operations, AX is called the accumulator register that stores operands for arithmetic operations.

2. BX Register: This register is mainly used as a base register. It holds the starting base location of a memory region within a data segment.

3. CX Register: It is defined as a counter. It is primarily used in loop instruction to store loop counter.

4. DX Register: DX register is used to contain I/O port address for I/O instruction.

Stack Pointer Register

The stack pointer (SP) register contains the 16-bit offset from the start of the segment to the memory location where a word was most recently stored on the stack. The memory location where a word was most recently stored is called the top of stack.
Other Pointer and Index Registers
The EU also contains a 16-bit source index (SI) register, base pointer (BP) registers, and Destination Index (DI) registers. These three registers can be mainly used for temporary storage of 16-bit data just like a general purpose registers.

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