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Computer Output Devices

Output is the result/information that is obtained after processing. The information must be presented in the human understandable form (usually from O's and l' to English Kannada or any other language) is capable of presenting information on to the output devices. There are many output devices attached with the computer. The monitors and printers are commonly used output devices.

1.   Monitor:
 Monitor is a commonly used output device, sometimes called as display screen visual display unit(VSU). It provides a visual display of data. Monitors are connected with the computer and are similar in appearance to a television set.
Initially there were only monochrome monitors. But gradually, we have monitors that display color. Monitors display images and text. The smallest dot that can be displayed is called a pixel (picture element).
The resolution of the screen improves as the number of pixels is increased. Most of the monitors have a 4:3 width to height ratio. This is called 'aspect ratio' .The number of pixels that can be displayed vertically and horizontally gives the resolution of the monitor. The resolution of the monitor determines the quality of the display. Some popular resolutions are 64Ox480pixels,1024x768pixels. The size of the monitor is  diagonally may be 12",14",17".19",21" and based on technology.

2.   Printer
Printer is an output device that prints text or images on paper or other media (like transparencies). By printing you create what is known as a 'hard copy'. There are different kinds of printers, which vary in their speed and print quality.
The two main types of printers are impact printers and non-impact printers.
Impact printers:
Impact printers include printers that print by striking device against inked ribbon. Impact printer use a print head containing a number of metal pins, which strike an inked ribbon placed between the printer head and the paper. Line printers, dot-matrix printers are some of the impact printers.
o The programs and data present in the memory is called as soft copy.
o The program· and data present on the paper, is called as hard copy.
Characteristics of impact printers
Ø  In impact printer, there is physical contact with the paper to produce an image .Du to being robust and low cost they are useful for bulk printing.
Ø  Impact printer are Ideal for printing multiple copies(that is ,carbon copies)
Because they can print through many layers of paper ,
Ø  Due to its striking activity, impact printer are very noisy.
Ø  Since they are mechanical in nature, they tend to be slow.
Ø  Impact printers do not support transparencies
Ø  Measured with character per second(CPS)

Non impact printers:
Non impact printers do not use striking device ,ink or semi solid ink is stored in  printer cartridges and flow of ink is controlled by processor which is much faster and can print colors and different font, size also
Characteristics of  non impact printers:
Ø   They are quite than impact printers because there is no striking mechanism involved.
Ø   They process the ability to change typefaces automatically.
Ø   These printers produce high-quality graphics
Ø   These printers usually support the transparencies
Ø   These printers cannot print multipart forms because no impact is being      
          made on the paper.
Ø   Measured in dots per inch (DPI)
Ø   The speed is calculated by the number of pages printed per minute (PPM)
Ø   The size of printing varies from A4, jumbo size

      i.          Line printers:
Line printers are high- speed printers capable of printing an entire line at a time. A line printer can print 150 to 3000 lines per minute. The limitations of line printer are they can print only font, they cannot print graphics, print quality is low and they are noisy to operate. But it can print large volume of data very fast compared to the other printers. It is also used to print on multipart stationeries to prepare copies of a document.

  ii.            Dot matrix printers:
The most popular serial printer is the dot matrix. It prints 8-14 points at a time with print head moving across a line. They are normally slow. The printing speed is usually 300 characters per second.
iii.            Thermal printers: Thermal printers are printers that produce images by pushing electrically heated pins against special heat-sensitive paper. They are inexpensive and used widely in fax machine and calculators...
Thermal printer paper tends to darken over time due to exposure to sunlight and heat. So the printed matters on the paper fade after a week or two. It also produces a poor quality print
   iv.          Laser printers:
Laser printers use a laser beam and dry powdered ink to produce a fine dot matrix pattern. It can produce very good quality of graphic image. One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution - how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down. The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to around1200 dpi at the high end.

    v.          Inkjet printers:
Inkjet printers use color cartridges which combine magenta, yellow, cyan ink to create color tones. A black cartridge is also used for crisp monochrome output. Inkjet printers print by spraying ionizing ink at a sheet of paper. magnetized  plates in the inks path directs the  ink on to the paper in described shape.

vi.          Plotter printers:
 Printer Plotter A output device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer. Plotter differs from printers in that they draw lines using a pen. As a result, they can produce continuous lines whereas printer can only simulate lines by printing a closely paced series of dots. Multi color plotter use different-color pen to draw different color.
 In general plotters are considerably more expensive than printer. They are used in engineering applications where precision is mandatory.
3.    Speakers:

The speakers are the output units. The sound signals from analog / digital are converted into audible frequency in the speakers and produce voice output. Using speakers along with speech synthesizer software, the computer can provide voice output. Voice output has become very common in many places like airlines, banks, automatic telephone inquiry system etc. The latest speakers are crystal clear audio.

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