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Pin Diagram Of 8086 Microprocessor: The Hardware Model

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor intended to be used as the CPU in a microcomputer. The 8086 Microprocessor - Internal Architecture sh...

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Functional components of a computer:

A computer is made up of 4 functional components. They are:
1.    Input unit
2.    Central processing unit(CPU)
a.     Control unit
b.    Arithmetic unit
c.     Registers
3.    Memory unit
4.    Output unit


i.     Input Unit:

            Computers need to receive data and instructions in order to solve any problem. The input unit basically links the external world or environment to the computer system. It consists of one or more input devices. The keyboard and mouse are most commonly used input devices.
ii. Central Processing Unit(CPU)
                  Once the data and instructions are received from the input device, they are to be processed in this unit. So it can be considered as the heart or brain of the computer system. It consist three major units:
§  Control Unit
          Control Unit controls and coordinates the activities of all the units of a computer system. It acts as a supervisor to the computer system. It performs following functions:
à Fetching the data and instructions from the main memory.
à Interpreting these instructions
à Controlling the transfer of data and instructions to and from the main memory.
à Controlling input and output devices.
à The overall supervision of the computer system.
§  Arithmetic and Logic Unit
          All the arithmetic and logical calculations are carried out in the ALU. An ALU consists of electronic circuitry which performs arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It also consists of logical circuitry which performs logical operations like AND, OR, NOT. And relational operations like <,> not equal to, <= less than, >= greater than, and == equal to.
§   Registers:
      The CPU consists of a number of temporary storage units , which are used to store instructions & intermediate data which may be generated during processing.
iii.            Memory Unit
The data and instructions required for processing has to be stored in the memory unit before actual processing starts. Similarly the results generated has to be preserved  before it is displayed. The memory unit thus provides space to store input data, intermediate results and final output generated. eg: hard disks, pen drives, floppy disks
iv.          Output Unit
          It is used to print or display the result obtained by the execution of a program. Whenever the user wants output from the computer, the control unit sends signal to this unit to be ready to accept processed data from the memory and to display it. Eg. Monitor, Printer, Speakers etc.

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