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Pin Diagram Of 8086 Microprocessor: The Hardware Model

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor intended to be used as the CPU in a microcomputer. The 8086 Microprocessor - Internal Architecture sh...


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Timing diagram, State, Machine Cycle, and Instruction Cycle : 8086 Microprocessor

Timing diagram:

Timing Diagram shows the behavior of the object(s) in a given period of time. It is a graphical method of showing the exact output behavior of a logic circuit for every possible set of input conditions. It is often used in digital devices to describe the operation. Its visual characteristics are easy to understand the operation.


One sub-division of an operation performed in one clock cycle is called a T-state. T1, T2, T3, T4  are called states.

Machine cycle:

A group of state come together to perform one operation is called machine cycle.

Instruction cycle:

The total time for fetching and executing an instruction is called instruction cycle. An instruction cycle consists of one or more machine cycle.

Example of Timing diagram, t-state, machine cycle and instruction cycle

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